Aristotle’s Dialectical Politics: The Struggle for Virtue

Aristotle’s political theory is grounded in two principal cornerstones: that man is a political (or social) animal, and that the end of human existence is happiness.   Thus, humanity’s essential social character cannot be separated from his existential character.  The separation of humanity from society will not produce the happiness he seeks.  Likewise, a politics that … Continue reading Aristotle’s Dialectical Politics: The Struggle for Virtue

Aristotle’s Metaphysics and the Four Causes

Aristotle’s Metaphysics is one of the most important works of philosophy, and also one of the most controversial.  In the work, Aristotle lays out his famous “four causes.”  Ultimately, Aristotle is interested in establishing a systematic doctrine of epistemology: what is knowledge and how do we know what we claim to know.  Many people often misunderstand Aristotle’s … Continue reading Aristotle’s Metaphysics and the Four Causes

Plato’s “Republic”: The Descent into Savagery and Tyranny

Plato’s Republic stands in contradistinction to Aristotle’s Politics, indeed, it stands in contradistinction to almost all other works of political philosophy because Plato never speaks in the dialogue.[1]  It would, therefore, be absurd to reach the conclusion that Plato’s dialogues teach us nothing because Plato is silent throughout his entire written corpus – giving way … Continue reading Plato’s “Republic”: The Descent into Savagery and Tyranny

Plato’s “Phaedo”: The Battle over the Soul and the Polis

The Phaedo is one of the more famous of the Platonic dialogues.  The dialogue concerns itself with the nature of the human soul and the afterlife. The dialogue contains the famous Affinity Argument, and Simmias’ response, in which the soul and body are linked together in a harmony like a Lyre.  We will explore the four … Continue reading Plato’s “Phaedo”: The Battle over the Soul and the Polis

Plato’s Allegory of the Cave: Tyranny and the Danger of Mass Society

The Allegory of the Cave is probably Plato’s most famous metaphorical story in all of his works and is certainly the most memorable moment in his Republic.  The Allegory of the Cave is doing many things for Plato, it is a commentary on humanity’s origo, it is a commentary on epistemology, it is a commentary … Continue reading Plato’s Allegory of the Cave: Tyranny and the Danger of Mass Society

Introduction to Plato: Oriental Platonism

Many people have likely come across the idea of Oriental Platonism? Oriental Platonism has a long history which is deeply intricate related to many factors: Aryanism, Indo-Europeanism, and other mystical anthropologies which rose to prominence in the late nineteenth century. While I will likely deal with this subject in fuller detail at some time in … Continue reading Introduction to Plato: Oriental Platonism

Introduction Plato: The Importance of This World

Plato is considered the father of systematic philosophy. His dialogues contain the essence of his philosophical outlook and have been much discussed. But there are many common misreading’s and misconceptions about Plato that need to be sorted out before reading Plato and misunderstanding the profundity of his works. As a published scholar on Plato, there … Continue reading Introduction Plato: The Importance of This World

Augustine’s City of God, V: Appraisal and Critique of Philosophy (Part II)

Augustine’s foremost interlocutor in the final books of Part I of City of God is the Neoplatonist (and in Augustine’s mind, neo-sophist) Porphyry.  Porphyry was already dead by the time Augustine wrote City of God, but Porphyry was one of the last intellectual critics of Christianity in the world of Late Antiquity.  Christian tradition held … Continue reading Augustine’s City of God, V: Appraisal and Critique of Philosophy (Part II)