Book on Plato

Have you ever wanted a concise but also in-depth exploration of Plato and Plato's political philosophy? After all, he was not only the first "philosopher" of the West but also the first political philosopher of the West. In fact, removing Plato from the context of political philosophy does tremendous harm to understanding Plato and engaging … Continue reading Book on Plato

Immanuel Kant: On Perpetual Peace

Among Immanuel Kant’s famous essays is his essay “To Eternal Peace” (alternatively titled “On Perpetual Peace”).  In this essay, published in 1795 right at the onset of the French Revolutionary Wars, Kant follows up on his philosophy of history by offering deep contemplation on the nature of unfolding history and constitutions to peace among nations.  … Continue reading Immanuel Kant: On Perpetual Peace

Immanuel Kant: “History with Cosmopolitan Intent”

Immanuel Kant wrote many important books, but he was also an important essayist—and some of his most important philosophical reflections, with longstanding and consequential legacies, were written as essays.  One of his most famous essays, with a rich consequential legacy, was “Idea of Universal History with Cosmopolitan Intent.”  One of the first elaborations on the … Continue reading Immanuel Kant: “History with Cosmopolitan Intent”

The Philosophical Sociology of Max Weber

Max Weber is considered one of the most important (if not the most) social scientists of the 20th century.  Weber is widely read in philosophy, since a lot of sociology falls under philosophical sociology.  Weber was noted for his support of the fact-value distinction, which led Weber’s assertion that choice should be conducted with extreme … Continue reading The Philosophical Sociology of Max Weber

Against Politicized Aesthetics: A Review of “Baudelaire Contra Benjamin” by Beibei Guan and Wayne Cristaudo

Walter Benjamin was one of the most important literary and critical theorists of the 20th century, or so the narrative goes. Beibei Guan and Wayne Cristaudo, at a very informative moment in their work, mention how the “authorities” of the human condition are no longer the great writers and philosophers of the past—like Homer, Plato, Augustine, … Continue reading Against Politicized Aesthetics: A Review of “Baudelaire Contra Benjamin” by Beibei Guan and Wayne Cristaudo

Theodor Adorno and Our Enslavement to Commodity Fetishism

Theodor Adorno is probably the most important 20th century Marxist philosopher, sociologist, and social critic.  The fundamental crux of Adorno is his critique of the Enlightenment and mass culture—typified by places like Hollywood—as a form of self-enslavement and bourgeois imperialism.  But instead of the superstructure directly engaging in clamping its controls over people, Adorno argued that … Continue reading Theodor Adorno and Our Enslavement to Commodity Fetishism