Athenian Exceptionalism and Pericles’ Funeral Oration

Athens was undoubtedly an exceptional polity. The Athenians are evidently aware of this fact. In the speeches leading up to the declaration of war between Athens and Sparta the Athenian representatives highlight their long and noble history which had brought them up to this moment in history. The much-remembered funeral oration of Pericles equally praises … Continue reading Athenian Exceptionalism and Pericles’ Funeral Oration

Geopolitics and the Melian Dialogue

In sticking with the theme of geopolitics which I have already discussed, I wish to segway into the Melian Dialogue by way of geopolitics. Alongside Pericles’ “Funeral Oration,” the Melian Dialogue is the most famous of dialogues (or orations) in Thucydides’ masterpiece. Most people who have never read the entirety of Thucydides have probably read … Continue reading Geopolitics and the Melian Dialogue

Corruption of Language and Morality in History of the Peloponnesian War

In a celebrated analysis of the corruption of language and its relationship with deteriorated character, Thucydides reflects on the symbiotic relationship of language with moral character. Language is clear, meaningful, and understandable when there is moral clarity, meaning, and understanding in the human animal. That is, the clarity of language ebbs and flows with the … Continue reading Corruption of Language and Morality in History of the Peloponnesian War

Geopolitics and the Cause of the Peloponnesian War

Thucydides, and his famous work, The History of the Peloponnesian War, is often misunderstood. Many consider him the so-called father of “objective history,” or “scientific history.” This has never been the position of the philosophers, and at long last that view of Thucydides is changing in history departments too. Thucydides was, as Leo Strauss said, … Continue reading Geopolitics and the Cause of the Peloponnesian War

The Philosophy of the Epic of Gilgamesh, 3: The Conquest of Nature and the “Plant of Life”

This essay is abstracted from my lectures on the Epic of Gilgamesh, an audio recording is available below through the YT video:   The episode of Gilgamesh and Enkidu slaying Humbaba is one of the more memorable (if not the most memorable) story contained in the epic.  It is also a story that any student … Continue reading The Philosophy of the Epic of Gilgamesh, 3: The Conquest of Nature and the “Plant of Life”

The Philosophy of the Epic of Gilgamesh, 2: Enkidu and the Cult of Sex and Civilization

This essay is abstracted from my lectures on the Epic of Gilgamesh, an audio recording is available below through the YT video:   The most memorable character of the Epic of Gilgamesh is probably Enkidu, the wild-man created by the god Aruru to rival and challenge Gilgamesh but who befriends Gilgamesh and whose death causes … Continue reading The Philosophy of the Epic of Gilgamesh, 2: Enkidu and the Cult of Sex and Civilization

The Philosophy of the Epic of Gilgamesh, 1: Gilgamesh and the Hegelian “Hero”

This essay is abstracted from my lectures on the Epic of Gilgamesh, an audio recording is available below through the YT video:   The Epic of Gilgamesh is the oldest work of extant literature in the world as of 2018.  The text was discovered in the nineteenth century and patched together into a working piece … Continue reading The Philosophy of the Epic of Gilgamesh, 1: Gilgamesh and the Hegelian “Hero”

The Spectacular Violence of the Greek Gods: Hesiod, Homer, and Greek Theodic Tradition

The decline of cultural Christianity, along with intellectual Christianity, has brought with it a debased Atheism without consciousness, inspiration, or stories. It has also been met by a renewed and vigorous neo-“paganism.” The romantic mind of these new pagans, many associated with the so-called Alt-Right, present the portrait of a redeemed paganism that was—ironically—the product … Continue reading The Spectacular Violence of the Greek Gods: Hesiod, Homer, and Greek Theodic Tradition

Redeeming the Chariot: The War in Heaven in “Paradise Lost”

John Milton’s Paradise Lost is, without argue, one of the triumphs of the Christian imagination. Taking the story of the War in Heaven and giving it detail, especially in Book VI, Milton also makes constant usage of classical and biblical imagery and references to bolster his lively and imaginative retelling. As Raphael tells the story … Continue reading Redeeming the Chariot: The War in Heaven in “Paradise Lost”

Allegory, Irony, and Satire in “Paradise Lost”

John Milton’s epic poem Paradise Lost is remembered for two things, the famous quote from Satan after having been expelled from Heaven, “Better to reign in Hell, than serve in Heav’n,” (i.263) and for creating the fiery depiction of Hell dramatically juxtaposed to the cold and frozen hell of Dante’s Inferno. Milton’s poem, though written … Continue reading Allegory, Irony, and Satire in “Paradise Lost”