Machiavelli’s Discourses on Livy (1/5): Polities and Political Forms

Niccolò Machiavelli is either scorned or considered the realist thinker par excellence. Even those who laud his realism may keep distance from his moral implications of politics. Such readings of Machiavelli have, more recently, been challenged thanks to individuals like Quinton Skinner, Harvey Mansfield, and Philip Bobbitt. Many people remember Machiavelli for his primer for … Continue reading Machiavelli’s Discourses on Livy (1/5): Polities and Political Forms

The Anatomy and Specters of Fascism, VII: Islamism

In concluding our series in examining fascism, its roots, its concrete manifestations, and its legacies, we have noted what is fascism and what is not fascism.  The common threads of fascist thought include: the synthesis of the people with the state for militaristic and warring ends (since conflict defines life through and through), that fascism’s … Continue reading The Anatomy and Specters of Fascism, VII: Islamism

The Anatomy and Specters of Fascism, VI: White Nationalism and the “Alt-Right”

Having explored the historical, and actual, roots of fascism, it is time to transition to the specters of fascism and understand why those groups often labelled “fascist” today – while certainly having some affinity and commonality with fascism, are not fascist.  In this post where will examine the “Alt-Right,” “Identitarianism,” and “Pan-Europeanism,” as three of … Continue reading The Anatomy and Specters of Fascism, VI: White Nationalism and the “Alt-Right”

The Anatomy and Specters of Fascism, V: Spain, Vichy, and the Nazi Allies

As we complete our tour and analysis of “historical fascism,” or what German scholar Ernst Nolte called “fascism in its epoch” (Der Faschismus in seiner Epoche, 1963), we turn to the more contentious historical movements that have sometimes been associated with fascism but scholars have generally regarded as not having been fascist (though certainly benefiting … Continue reading The Anatomy and Specters of Fascism, V: Spain, Vichy, and the Nazi Allies

The Anatomy and Specters of Fascism, IV: Nazism

Of all the fascist movements, German fascism (or “National Socialism”) is probably the most famous and least understood.  Fascism in Germany was the epicenter of the brief life of fascism, produced a number of intellectuals – serious and forgotten – from which we are able to derive a lineage of fascist philosophy.  While antecedent roots … Continue reading The Anatomy and Specters of Fascism, IV: Nazism

The Anatomy and Specters of Fascism, III: Italian Fascism and Julius Evola

To understand fascism, it was necessary to begin with the Romantic Movement, otherwise one will not have a solid familiarity with the ideas that fascism sought to emulate, restore, and implement, as well as distort.  In the history of fascism, especially in the 20th century, there are three key specters to examine: Italian fascism, German fascism, … Continue reading The Anatomy and Specters of Fascism, III: Italian Fascism and Julius Evola

The Anatomy and Specters of Fascism, II: Romantic Antecedents

In-of-itself, Romanticism is not a fascist movement or philosophy.  But fascism drew upon the rich intellectual traditions of Romanticism, even if it distorted it some very important and meaningful ways.  So what is Romanticism? Philosophical Romanticism was a counterrevolutionary intellectual and artistic movement that arose in the late Enlightenment.  It was starkly opposed to Enlightenment … Continue reading The Anatomy and Specters of Fascism, II: Romantic Antecedents

The Anatomy and Specters of Fascism, I: Origin and Circumstances

“Fascist!”  To be called a fascist is to have one of the worst derogatory epithets hurled at you.  It invokes brown shirted thugs, swastikas, racism, demagoguery, and of course—the Nazis.  The usage of the word, sadly, has lost all culpable meaning because it is merely hurled at opponents who “don’t play by the rules” established … Continue reading The Anatomy and Specters of Fascism, I: Origin and Circumstances

Aristotle’s Dialectical Politics: The Struggle for Virtue

Aristotle’s political theory is grounded in two principal cornerstones: that man is a political (or social) animal, and that the end of human existence is happiness.   Thus, humanity’s essential social character cannot be separated from his existential character.  The separation of humanity from society will not produce the happiness he seeks.  Likewise, a politics that … Continue reading Aristotle’s Dialectical Politics: The Struggle for Virtue